Analysis of Soil and Sludge by ICP-OES with Axial Plasma Observation
Soil is a vital and largely non-renewable resource. The importance of its protection is internationally recognized. Since the introduction of contaminants into the soil results in damage or loss of its functions, possibly cross contaminates water and has negative consequences for the food chain and respectively human health, contamination levels in soil and sludge from urban and industrial waste water treatment need to be controlled.
The European Union has passed several directives to be adopted by the member states to regulate the application of sewage sludge to land (“Sewage Sludge Directive 86/278/EEC” , “Landfill Directive 1999/31/ EC” , “Organic Farming Regulation (EEC) No. 2092/91” ). They prohibit the use of sludge from treatment plants unless the specified requirements are fulfilled.
In the USA, the US EPA has made recommendations for the lifetime maximum amount of heavy metals that can be applied to agricultural cropland in in the “EPA Process Design Manual for the Land Application Of Municipal Sludge, 1983” .